Shoe manufacturing is a difficult job that calls for wide-ranging expertise. Merely knowing how to make a shoe is not enough. A good shoemaker needs to know how to select and cut the leather, create and manufacture the lasts, perfectly hand-stitch the assembled pieces together so that leather, last and sole become a perfect whole. Cordwainer shoes are manufactured according to the Goodyear Welted process, whereby the upper leather is shaped over the last and fastened on by sewing a leather strip. This makes the shoe extremely durable and adaptable to the foot shape thanks to a natural cork padding in the cavity between the insole and outsole.